An Interview With Ardath Albee: Perception, Storytelling & Content Buyers Actually Want

Ardath Albee is the CEO of Marketing Interactions. She regularly works with B2B clients to create digital marketing strategies that are compelling, highly leveraged and, most importantly, designed to engage prospects across the entirety of the buying process — what Ardath refers to as The Continuum Experience.

Her most recent book Digital Relevance: Developing Marketing Content and Strategies that Drive Results was referred to as the “new standard for digital marketers” by New York Times bestselling author Jay Baer, and she is also a sought-after national speaker on topics such as content marketing and personas.

Earlier this year, we were fortunate enough to attend Ardath’s session “How Buyer Personas Power Sustainable Stories that Turn Prospects into Customers” at the B2B Marketing Exchange in Scottsdale, AZ. Afterward, our VP, Customer Insight Lianne Wade connected with her to discuss storytelling, content binges, and why marketers should get out of a campaign mentality.

You offered up a very compelling image stating that a common problem for marketers is that perception does not equal reality. Can you explain this, and how companies can overcome it?

B2B marketers tend to believe they know their audiences, but in reality they haven’t taken the time to do the research and deep dive as far as necessary to really understand them.

Part of this is because we know our solutions too well – so the curse of knowledge. We also tend to evaluate content and marketing programs based on what appeals to us. Yet we’re not our buyers or customers.

Developing personas is the best way I know to get to the level of understanding and knowledge that informs truly relevant content and marketing programs that resonate and compel action. Action being the key outcome.

cat that thinks it's a lion

You stated that campaigns halt momentum; yet, as we know, many marketers today manage communications through campaign-driven efforts. How can they avoid this campaign mentality and build momentum to deliver “The Continuum Experience”, a term you have coined?

The biggest problem with campaigns is that they start and stop. If your buyers take 9 months to buy your complex solution but your campaign lasts 3 months, you’re leaving them hanging just when you’ve expended a lot of effort to engage them.

There are a growing number of stakeholders involved in the decision, lots of knowledge to transfer and consensus to be reached. I’d ask marketers to identify anyone who has ever said, “Please give me 3 content offers and have a salesperson call me to schedule a demo.” I don’t think they can.

Campaigns are a construct created by companies to put a box around a program for reporting purposes. They are not based on what a buyer needs to decide to make a purchase decision.

Notice in the graphic below the “dead air” space that happens when traditional campaigns end and new ones begin. All momentum the marketer has built up with prospects halts. There’s nowhere to go.

But with a continuum approach, marketers can keep the momentum going from problem to solution, fulfilling buyers’ informational needs at each step and stage as their context changes given the ongoing knowledge transfer.

Campaign vs. Continuum

Our agency uses storytelling in marketing, because it is so compelling and memorable. You talk about how to build and sustain stories. Can you elaborate on how B2B marketers can effectively use stories in their communications efforts?

Storytelling is compelling, because it’s natural. It’s the way we explain our world, the choices we make, and our aspirations. The most important thing to remember is that your buyer is the hero of the story. Not your company, not your product.

Focus your storytelling on helping the buyer learn what he or she needs to know to make an informed decision. And don’t assume they’ve already decided they need your solution. We need to start earlier in the pre-sales process to help them decide that they have a problem worth solving with our help.

Simple formula: Buyer sets out to solve a problem. Finds he doesn’t know all he needs or have the right tools to solve the problem. He enlists the help of a mentor (your company) to teach him what he needs to know to solve the problem. With your help, he clears the hurdles in his way and helps his buying committee reach consensus. He chooses to become your customer and lives happily-ever-after.

Apply this thought process to whatever you’re selling with the buyer as the hero, and you’ll have a compelling story across the entirety of the buying process — from start to finish.

Slide by Ardath Albee about Storytelling

You talked about an idea which I found very intriguing: content binge. When a buyer is ready to consume more info, provide them with easy access to information and package it. Can you give some practical ideas on how this would be accomplished?

When buyers become motivated to solve a problem, they tend to want to ingest as much information as they can about how to go about doing that.

Establishing problem-to-solution content hubs on your website or creating a microsite groups all this information together and reduces the effort they must expend to access the information.

The best part is that if you’ve designed your content to match needs at different stages of buying, you can also identify where they are in their buying process and respond to their buying patterns with highly relevant content offers and follow-up.

What is the one thing that you want B2B marketers to know about buyer personas that they may not know, or perhaps have a misperception about?

Buyer personas, built well, are great for understanding individual members of the buying committee. However, a greater value is in understanding the relationships and overlays between the personas as they work together to reach consensus. Or don’t. By understanding the group dynamics, you can create content and share information that will help them work together to solve the problem.

Slide by Ardath Albee

Tim Riesterer from Corporate Visions spoke about defeating the Status Quo Bias by teaching customers something new about their business needs that they may not know today; thereby disrupting them to change their behavior. In your opinion, how can B2B marketers overcome this bias to motivate buyers to act?

This goes back to question one. If you truly understand your buyers, you should be able to identify their “jobs to be done” or unmet needs, as well as why their status quo position won’t get them there.

Armed with this insight, you have a much higher chance of being able to show them something they haven’t seen in the same light before.

Ardath, where will be you be speaking next, and what topic will you cover?

I’ll be at Marketo’s Marketing Nation Summit in San Francisco, April 24th – 26th.

I’ll be talking about how to create an ABM strategy to drive consensus for complex sales.

Wilde Agency Logo 1

Wilde Agency is an award-winning integrated marketing agency that specializes in understanding and utilizing the science of human behavior to drive superior results for our clients.

Previously, we have spoken to Dr. Aaron Reid about what marketers can gain from implicit research technology, and prior to that, we chatted with international bestseller and visual marketing expert Dan Roam about the persuasive power of drawing.

The post An Interview With Ardath Albee: Perception, Storytelling & Content Buyers Actually Want appeared first on Wilde Agency.


Chuffed to have won three UK Sponsorship Awards last night!! ‘Best use of PR’ for Barclays Premier League, ‘Best use of Research & Evaluation’ for Barclays ATP World Tour Finals and Natasha Cabral walked away with the hugely prestigious Barrie Gill Award, given to the rising star in the UK sponsorship industry. Fantastic work.

Why PR is so Important for Consumer Electronics

Electronics are applicable to all walks of life. With the emergence of influencer marketing, it’s vital that your brand is on point with its PR messaging. Here are some tips on why a strong Public Relations campaign is needed for your Consumer Electronics brand.

Social Media

Consumers electronics are particularly popular with the younger generation. The recent expansion of social media has made advertisements, notifications, and marketing more accessible than ever. If a company has a proficient PR team, they will be able to easily connect with the public. Familiarity with this sort of technology should not be taken for granted. Due to the wealth of settings and personalized features on these applications, there are clever ways to spread the word efficiently. Therefore, a strong presence on social media is essential for any consumer electronics business.

Evolving electronics

This is a rapidly evolving industry. Every year, improved electronics appear on the open market. Unlike other industries with forms of longevity, consumer electronics have predetermined shelf lives that come and go. In order to inform buyers of these new products, PR is an absolutely necessary department. If a company has a weak PR team, their consumers might be unaware of innovative and exciting products. In particular, people are interested in upgrades for their current devices. It is important to organize PR and inform the community of recent developments.

Size of demographic

Compared to other industries, consumer electronics is unusually large. Consumers include homeowners, students, the elderly, and more. Because everybody values electronics for productivity, these devices are a priority for nearly all buyers. The best way to spread information is through repeated PR. While other smaller industries might spread the word via bulletins or local conventions, these methods fall short when it comes to electronics. It is necessary to use mass communication to reach all of the population.


PR is also responsible for upholding community relations and standards. This includes constant communication via email and feedback systems that allow anonymity. In the consumer electronics industry, there are naturally a large number of complaints and concerns. If a PR team is able to quell these problems without a hitch, they will be able to maintain a solid reputation. When the public is highly judgmental, it is this department’s responsibility to uphold a good image. Future electronics sales are on the line.

Data Science and Big Data Experts Wanted for Marketing and PR

More and more job listings for both PR and marketing are asking for experience with data science, especially Big Data. Big Data and digital understanding provides better analysis of the results (or lack of them), and such skills also help to pin down and target those who are likely to be most interested in the client’s products and services. Wired referred to data science as being better paying than medicine as a career path, and the Harvard Business Review said it’s the “sexiest job of the 21st century.” Gartner and McKinsey, industry analysts, each reported they expect a shortfall of experts for the jobs coming up of between 100K and 190K by 2020. The majority of those jobs will be in app creation to look for pattern seeking and crunching knowledge.

The Future

It’s sometimes hard to remember, but Big Data has moved to its current position of prominence over just five years. Burtch Works, an employment agency, currently say they have 120 positions in the field to fill and the starting salaries range between $97K-$152K – but managers in these fields got up to $240K and in most cases, they are newly created jobs. This trend for data scientists mimics the trend for digital specialists that happened earlier at the turn of the millennium.

Many of those who have been filling the positions for data science began their careers as statisticians and data miners. Previous job descriptions were often as programmers, consultants, and systems analysts, outside of their job titles they were likely called geeks, and until Big Data became a “thing” on the IoT, no one wanted to pay big dollars for a geek’s statistics. But it’s a different story now; those geeks have become the rock stars of marketing and PR.

Tools and Understanding

Though the use of search engines like Google has helped in the early stages of data science efforts for many companies, it goes well beyond that skill for specialists using computing power, educated choices about more than one software language, and cutting-edge hardware. Making sense of the data and applying statistical and economic tools are also necessary skills. Once the data is compiled, then asking the right questions becomes necessary to make use of the information. And specialists have to be savvy enough to know if the data collected is accurate – it’s not always the case.

It’s not just about those impressive geek skills either. The leader of Burtch Works, Linda Burtch, says business acumen plays a big part too, especially for those working in the marketing and PR side of data. She said: “It’s so critical because a lot of quantitative candidates get so wrapped up in the elegance of the analytics that they forget that they’re answering business problems.” offers webinars, free training, and more for those who want to pick up more tips of the trade as data scientists in the marketing field. They also offer forecast and survey results.

Dr. John H. Johnson, author of Everydata: The Misinformation Hidden in the Little Data you Consume Each Day, said: “If you can build up some basic intuition and logic about how to work with data, you know there are all sorts of people who are essentially citizen data scientists.”

If you are inclined to this kind of job trajectory, don’t wait, start learning all you can and use that knowledge to further your education.

Is Drake Killing the Album?


Is popular music killing the album? The latest project from Toronto rap artist Drake, entitled ‘More Life’, which dropped this week, is not an album or mixtape, but a self-described ‘playlist’. Is Drake’s adoption of the term a trendy technicality, the indication of a side project, or the signal of a wider shift in the music industry?

In the New York Times, Jon Caramanica writes that “the playlist suggests an aesthetic shift from the album, which in its platonic ideal form is narratively structured and contained, a creator’s complete thought expressed in parts. A playlist in the streaming era, by contrast, is a collection of moods, impressions, influences and references; it’s a river that flows in one direction, ending somewhere far from the beginning (if it ends at all).”

The idea that an album ‘ends’ is one that is being challenged. As the commercial focus of music shifts from selling physical vinyl and CDs to digital streaming services, the musical content of an album can become more fluid. After releasing ‘The Life of Pablo’, Kanye West continued to update the work, adding lyrics and tweaking the mix of what he described as a “living breathing changing creative expression”.

There’s also a business imperative to artists working with the idea of a loose collection of ‘moods’, which can be mixed, matched and tailored to a listener’s location, activity and preferences. Spotify is increasingly transparent about the importance of listening data to its advertising-heavy business model. In Quartz, Amy X. Wang describes Spotify’s “financial incentive to pry more deeply into users’ listening habits and sell ads aligned with their specific lifestyles”. It’s not unrealistic to imagine record labels prioritising the idea of an artist providing the ‘ingredients’ of a user-created playlist, over the complete artistic vision of an album’s narrative.

Do you agree? Would the reconciliatory ‘All Night’ from Beyonce’s album ‘Lemonade’ work without the burning anger of ‘Pray You Catch Me’? When was the last time you listened to an album in full? Let us know on Twitter.

Words by Erica Smith and Jed Carter.

This originally appeared in Moving World Wednesday 20170322.

Subscribe to Moving World Wednesday here.

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Our Marketing Manager shares her key takeaways from SXSW 2017


This was my first time attending SXSW and most likely won’t be my last. I spent a total of five days drinking the kool aid and here’s what I learned:

The explosion of influencers

One of the hottest topics was influencers. As more brands and VCs look to invest in this space, they are running into a major issue: authenticity. How can businesses ensure the experience is authentic? But also, how can they evaluate their ROI?

Businesses need to understand that influencers are known for who they are (they are made famous on social channels first and are self-built star) versus celebrities who are known for their work (and often made famous by more traditional channels such as TV, radio, etc.). Put inherent trust in the influencers your business hires. They should be real people with real experiences interacting with your products and your company. Just as brands need to distinguish themselves, so do influencers. As this space grows, consumers will be even more sensitive to highly produced content. Make sure the end results match your brand and your influencer’s brand. – This was from The Moral Code of Pay-to-Play Marketing panel.


‘A robot without a tool is like a car without tires’

You couldn’t throw a rock without hitting a talk, exhibition or demonstration around robots or AI at SXSW.

While robots will continue to be a tool for increased productivity, they will be made to collaborate with humans. Cobots are robots that will be careful of human safety, can work in unstructured environments and have a user interface to interact naturally with their human co-workers. – This was from the Democratizing the Industrial Robot talk with YASKAWA Innovation talk.

We saw the future of storytelling unraveled and pieced back together as we watched a film made completely by AI tools. It’s as dramatic as it sounds. From conception of characters, location, clothing, makeup to the casting of the actor and editing, AI tools such as IBM Watson, EEG, emotion recognition, MS Rinna chatbot etc. were used to create a ‘watchable’ film. – This was from Can a Film Made by a Machine Move You? panel.


Content is king, queen and all the other pieces on the board.

We are starting to see digital platforms such as Youtube, Facebook etc. incubate themselves. They are buying both content and creators. They are also making creative decisions from design to production. We predict that the logical next step would be to bring all elements of content creation and distribution in-house that is if they have not already begin to do so.

Where will content live in the future? Content creators are looking beyond legacy platforms like Facebook and Twitter. From interactive video storytelling, audio and voice recognition, VR/ AR / MR, live video and messaging (chatbots), content creators are looking to build monetization into “themselves” from day one. – This was from the Pop Tech: Marrying LA and SF panel.

sxsw_select_8The future of design is reductive?

From a smart but disgruntled attendee: The machine reduces me to data. Interestingly, this complaint set off a lively discussion.

We are in a lopsided moment where we have data but we are bad at doing something with it all. Except for advertisers. Advertisers, sneakily enough, are using data to adapt to consumers’ needs and wants. Although there is a lack of transparency around their usage of data, it’s scarily nothing new.

There is also the idea of thinking of your data-self as an extension and not a representation of you. As we continue to feed more data and more of ourselves into machines such as Google Home or Alexa, we’d have to accept the fact that we are a known entity. How can design tackle this issue? Is design still the reductiveness of noise and not possibilities? – This was from Innovation by Design: What’s Next? panel.

Tl;dr robots are here to stay. So are influencers.

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Kombucha, Probiotics, and Plant-based everything—Oh My!

It’s been a week since brands and companies from across the globe unveiled their newest launches and innovations at Natural Products Expo West 2017. The dust has settled—though there may still be some sand in my suitcase from my West Coast jaunt—which means, it is time to reflect. So here goes, I’ve got my nitrate-free beef jerky and no preservative-added beet chips at the ready (spoiler alert: two huge trends) to fuel this recap.

First, we want to applaud all of our clients for truly leading the way in their respective categories. Just a few of the amazing launches and news unveiled by our client partners this year at Expo West:

  • Gaea has been changing how consumers define “authenticity” and “traceability” since they’ve entered the U.S. market from Greece. Gaea’s now giving other snack brands a run for their money by elevating the quality of the C-store product game. At Expo West, Gaea showed off its Gourmet Olives, available in two varieties: Green and Kalamata. Put your slurpees down, folks, get some real food in ya!
  • Munk Pack finally showed off the highly-anticipated MunkPack Protein Cookies. 18 grams of plant protein, and available in four delicious flavors: Coconut White Chocolate Macadamia, Double Dark Chocolate, Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip, Oatmeal Raisin Spice—lace up your hiking boots!
  • Viki’s Granola, the fastest growing granola company year-over-year, is branching out—or should I say barking out? Viki and her team announced the upcoming launch of new product line, Granola Bark, at the show—four delectable flavors: Original, Banana Crunch, Citrus Explosion and Blueberry Blast (Banana Crunch is my fave!)
  • Carrington Farms, long-time maker of the most innovative and dependable health food products gave show attendees a sneak peak of the incredible rebrand that the brand is rolling out in weeks to come. The new packaging and new products were amazingly well received – we can’t wait to show off the new look soon!
5WPR public relations

My fellow Expo Warriors aka pro trendspotters and taste testers checking out our client NeoCel’s newest launch! (Dara Busch, EVP of Consumer Practice and Elizabeth Minton, VP of New Business Development)

Walking the show felt like navigating an adult version of Disneyland (which, by the way, runs fireworks every night at 10pm—I learned this the hard way in my Anaheim hotel). Whether you were weaving in between the Davids or the Goliaths of the tradeshow, one thing was clear—innovation led the way in the fight for shelf space. The overall food market is flat, but natural and organic was up 7.7% in 2016¹, and the state of the industry couldn’t have been more obvious in the buzzing halls of the show.

Food & Beverage Trendspotting at Expo West 2017—what made a splash:

  • PALEO – As someone who has “gone paleo,” I was delighted to see that you couldn’t walk a few booths without seeing the word “paleo” on packaging. One of my clients’ after the show said, “is Paleo still a thing?” Answer: yes. The marketplace for the Paleo Certified stamp of approval is booming. Even non-paleo brands have begun to “clean up” their acts, removing additives and unnecessary ingredients. Think: bone broth, coconut wraps, pure maple water, almond flour, and paleo jerky sticks.
  • PROBIOTICS – Walking the show floor, I think there was an hour stretch where I took a probiotic shot, drank probiotic juice, and topped off a breakfast taco with probiotic hot sauce (which by the way was delicious). The probiotic train has left the station and there are no signs of slowing down.
  • PLANT-BASED – Given that there are hundreds of rows on the show floor, it’s typically hard to reach a consensus of opinion on what booth was most popular, but this year, everyone I talked to said the same thing: Beyond Meat was the “it” booth. Perhaps it was due to the fact that Beyond Meat was serving up the plant-based burgers in a fully functional diner style flat top, or perhaps it was just that they were on trend with the ever-growing trend and category of plant-based products. Plant-based milk topped $4.2BB in 2016², plant-based cheese generated 31.4% growth in the natural channel and 18% growth in all channels³, and plant-based meat sales exceeded $606MM in the 52 weeks leading up to Jan 22, 2017⁴.
  • DOING GOOD – More than ever before, we saw “1-for-1” Give Back Models and brands that proudly pushed social missions and CSR efforts. Case-in-point: we saw a snack bar brand called “This Bar Saves Lives,” the motto is “buy a bar, feed a child.”
  • FUNCTIONAL RTD BEVERAGE CATEGORY – We saw “superpower tea with ginseng,” caffeinated water, probiotic water, drinking vinegars, and kombuchas. We saw beverages that had a long check list of why you should be drinking them besides for hydration. Functional RTD Beverages game was on fire. If you want hydration with a side of wellness, energy, digestive support, or more—check your grocery aisles out.

As a consumer, I’m hungry for some of these launches to hit market. As a publicist, I’m excited to give editors and producers the scoop on what I know readers and viewers want more of lately. As part of the industry community, I’m so proud of companies and brands for upping the ante and keeping each other honest. The direction the industry is going in is incredibly exciting—how could it not be, when Oat Milk, Vegan Buffalo Wings and Probiotic Hot Sauce are in my shopping cart?

Flexible working, just an employee perk or a business benefit too?

It’s fair to say that these days most employers accept the need for some flexibility in the workplace, whether it’s allowing staff to work from home to wait for a delivery, or not returning to the office after a meeting. But is there an argument to suggest that flexible working can be more than simply an employee benefit and that a flexible working strategy can be beneficial to your business as well?

The workplace flexibility movement began years ago when many organisations launched talent initiatives to accommodate working mothers. Over time though, flexibility options have mushroomed: from compressed workweeks to job sharing, to adjustable schedules etc.

Being a millennial myself, you won’t be surprised to hear that an organisation that offers flexible working hours is appealing to me. But as a millennial I am not alone in this thinking. Organisations now span four generations— Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y and the incoming Gen Z-ers, each with different leadership, communication, working, and learning styles, but what we do have in common is a desire for more workplace flexibility.

Moving away from the traditional 9-5 doesn’t mean employees are any less committed to the success of their organisation; in fact, it’s quite the opposite, flexible working can mean greater quality and productivity. And if your workforce is more productive then surely your business will benefit?

The business benefit

From its birth as an employee entitlement, workplace flexibility has grown to become a requirement for organisations that want to make the most of its people’s productivity.

The most successful businesses and teams have the ability to get the most out of the people they have. There is a limit to the number of hours in a week and a limit to the number of people you can employ, so making sure this input works as effectively as possible is one of the key factors to improving productivity and, ultimately, success.

With flexible work schedules, employers experience these benefits:

  1. Reduced absenteeism and sickness
    A study from Sweden’s Karolinska Institute points out that while poor health causes employee absence, being ill does not have to result in employees being absent from work. It suggests that more flexible working options could mean less sick leave, and less absenteeism if illness is managed in a way that is better for employers and employees.
  2. Encourages dynamism in your business
    Having a team who are in and out of the workplace at different times of the day and working remotely at others means your company is always on the move. Staff and employers are not getting entrenched in a particular way of working.
  3. Increased employee morale, engagement, and commitment to the organisation
    All employers want a motivated and productive workforce and flexible working can promote this. Studies have shown that flexible working means your workforce are happier and less stressed and this means you don’t have as much sickness absence to deal with.
  4. Reduced turnover of valued staff
    If your staff are happier in the workplace then this is one of the things that can boost your staff retention. Recruitment can be an expensive and time consuming process. Retention also allows for continuity in the business.
  5. Increased ability to recruit outstanding employees
    Staff retention is great but all companies need to recruit new staff occasionally. Offering flexible working can make your company more attractive to potential employees. Having a reputation for flexible working can give your organisation an advantage and help to tempt the best talent to apply for your roles.
  6. Fosters better customer loyalty
    If your company has a reputation for flexible working customers also appreciate this. These days people like to know they are buying from companies that care about their employees and the community. Flexible working shows customers that the company tries to take staff needs on board. You are seen as a progressive, forward thinking company.
  7. Gives staff more control
    Flexible working gives staff a feeling of having more control over their work time and free time. This means they are more willing to work under their own initiative and are often more prepared to go the extra mile.

Not all flexible working ideas will work for every company, but the basic foundations are the same. Whatever the size of your company; trust, communication and technology are all vital for a successful strategy. The benefits of flexible working depend on the nature of the business. How it operates, what its customers need and how its people work but it’s likely all companies will see the impact of having an engaged and happy workforce will have on its productivity.


Stats – can we do a nice infographic for the article using this data?

  • Women without children would rather have more free time than make more money (68 %)—even more than those with children (62%).
  • 40% of professional men work more than 50 hours per week. Of these, 80% would like to work fewer hours.
  • One in five employees cares for elderly parents, a number that could increase to almost half of the workforce over the next several years.
  • By 2025, Gen Y employees, will grow to represent 75% of the workforce. For this emerging generation, work-life fit is valued more than compensation growth or skill development.
  • 92% of Millennials say that flexibility is a top priority.
  • 45% of working parents are very concerned about having more time to spend with their families—and that number increases to 72 percent for those who are simultaneously balancing parenting and care giving responsibilities.
  • 58% of UK workers think the traditional office will not exist by 2020.
  • Flexible working has a significant influence on loyalty, with 81% saying it would make them more likely to stay with their employer.
  • 65% of employers said flexible working had a positive effect on attracting talent and keeping people long term, saving on recruitment, induction and training costs.

The post Flexible working, just an employee perk or a business benefit too? appeared first on Tonic Agency.

Who guards the guards?

Last week, Experience Planners Julia and Natalie went to a talk on the ethics of behavioural science with some of the field’s biggest names.

The brief is simple, one hour to write a blog post, let’s go…

After a slow start and so, an extra wine, the talk kicked off with panelists giving their views on how to be ethical within the practise of behavioural science, immediately getting us thinking, who decides what is classed as good behaviour and what is not? One of the panelists Emily Haisley, Investment risk and Behavioural finance Director at BlackRock argued that if you can help people fully comprehend the decisions that they’re making and the consequences of that decision, then they tend to make better decisions and feel happier about them. Nudging them into a state of knowledge and empowerment means they’re in control of their decisions and are more likely to make decisions in the state of System 2.

System 1 and System 2 are our mind states when making decisions, System 1 is our emotional, impulsive state and System 2 is our rational, analytical state. Decisions made in System 2 are seen as morally more acceptable, but this may not always be the case.

So does targeting our System 2 state of mind mean we can drive genuinely positive behavioural change? Even when the ambition of a product fits squarely into what the wider society deems to be a positive, the outcomes can still be surprising. Using the example of the Fitbit, where people have chosen to be told about the number of steps they are taking a day, trying to nudge them towards daily targets, people with trackers actually lost less weight than those without. Regular reminders of how active they’ve been helped may have justified the extra slice of cake! Even when fairly confident about the positive nature of a nudge the outcome could still turn negative.

Another perspective was that we should educate people and children on how to recognise nudges, however this was shot down by nearly all the panelists as they themselves admitted that recognising nudges doesn’t stop you being influenced by them.

Looking to traditional advertising, we’ve long been comfortable using persuasive tactics to talk to our audiences. We use content and imagery to sell a lifestyle, we use language and emotions to encourage people to spend their money! Framing and social proof, chunking and default choice are all tools we use regularly in the design of everything from digital platforms to above the line advertising. We rely on regulations to define what is fair, but often it’s down to the team or individual to decide what’s right.

If we look to social media, there is an abundance of talking, sharing and posting, arguably manipulating and forming our point of view with stories and facts that may not even be true. ‘Fake news’ and clever algorithms mean our individual news sources can be hugely contrived and our exposure to differing opinions becomes extremely narrowed. Is that ethical? Should Facebook regulate further? Should the government then regulate Facebook?

When working on a campaign to reduce littering no one has any problem with us using behavioural science to drive change, no one will ever complain if we try and increase rates of recycling, but how do we define what is right? Whose needs are more important than others? Which causes get ticked off as ‘good’? And who gets to make that distinction?

Essentially, who guards the guards?